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Life Style Diseases in India

The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is conducting a study namely ICMR-INDIAB involving all states and union territories – both urban and rural population for ascertaining the exact number of diabetic patients. 15 states have been covered so far and the prevalence of diabetes varies from 4.3 percent in Bihar to 13.6 percent in Chandigarh. According to report published by International Diabetes Federation (IDF; 6th Edition, 2013), number of people with diabetes (20-79 years) in urban setting of India were about 30.5 million in 2013. As informed by ICMR, current estimates from one-time cross sectional studies conducted in different regions of country indicate that the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) is between 8-10 percent in urban and 3 to 4 percent in rural India. As informed by ICMR the estimated prevalence of cancer cases in India during 2013, 2014, and 2015 are 2934314, 3016628 and 3101467 respectively.

Nationwide scientific estimation of number of patients of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) has not been carried out. However, in some of the small population-based studies, it was found to be in 0.79 percent in North India and 0.16 percent in South India. National Center for Disease Informatics and Research (NCDIR), Bengaluru is running hospital and population based cancer registries. As informed by ICMR some studies have been conducted on NCDs. A study is commissioned to ICMR on Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases and Associated Risk Factors for India (BOD-NCD). The factors responsible for increase in lifestyle diseases (NCDs) are unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, harmful use of alcohol, overweight, obesity, tobacco use, etc.

Public health is a state subject, however, under National Health Mission (NHM), financial and technical support is provided to states/UTs to strengthen their healthcare systems including setting up of/upgradation of public health facilities, based on the requirements posed by the states/UTs in their Program Implementation Plans (PIPs). Government of India is implementing National Program for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) for interventions up to District level under the National Health Mission. Under NPCDCS, diagnosis and treatment facilities are provided through different levels of healthcare by setting up NCD Clinics in District Hospitals and Community Health Centers (CHCs). Intervention of CKD has also been included in NPCDCS for proper management. For early diagnosis, population-based screening of common NCDs viz. diabetes, hypertension and common cancers (oral, breast, cervical) is initiated under NHM utilizing the services of the Frontline- workers and Health-workers under existing Primary Healthcare System. This process will also generate awareness on risk factors of common NCDs.

Under strengthening of tertiary care for cancer center (TCCC) Scheme, Government of India is assisting states to set up/establish state cancer institute (SCI) and TCCCs in different parts of the country. Support under the National Health Mission (NHM) is also being provided to States for provision of dialysis services free of cost to the poor under Pradhan Mantri National Dialysis Program (PNDP). The Central Government, through its hospitals augments the efforts of the State Governments for providing health services in the country. Under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana (PMSSY), 6 new AIIMS have been set up and upgradation of identified medical colleges has been undertaken which will also improve healthcare facilities. – PIB

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